Monday, October 20, 2008

La forma pasiva en inglés

Para formar la forma pasiva del inglés necesitamos hacer uso del verbo to be, igual que ocurre en castellano. Posteriormente, se pondrá el verbo en participio.

The match is played
The house is built
The book is read
El partido es jugado
La casa es construida
El libro es leído

 

Una diferencia que se puede apreciar en la forma pasiva entre el inglés y el castellano es que el sujeto conjuerda en género y número con el participio; mientras en inglés, al tener una única forma el verbo, no hay dicha concordancia.

The boy's hair is combed
The girl's hair is combed
The childrens' hair is combed
El niño is peinado
La niña es peinada
Los niños son peinados

En la forma pasiva del inglés es comun que exista un tipo especial de sujeto: el "sujeto agente", que es el sujeto que realiza la acción. Se caracteriza por introducirse con la partícula by.

This boy's hair is combed by his mother
Este niño es peinado por su madre

Dinner is cooked by her husband
La cena es preparada por el marido

El proceso para poder pasar una oración activa en pasiva es el siguiente:

  1. El complemento de la oración activa (objeto) pasa a la función de sujeto en la pasiva.
  2. El verbo principal de la frase se cambia por el to be en auxiliar, acompañado del verbo principal en participio.
  3. El sujeto de la activa pasa a convertirse en complemento agente en la pasiva.
forma activa Forma pasiva
I watch this program
I cleaned my car
You have read this book
This program is watched by me
The car was cleaned by me
This book has been read by you

Así mismo todas las formas verbales tienen su correspondiente forma en pasiva; también las formas continuas. Todas se forman colocando el verbo auxiliar de la frase en pasiva en el mismo tiempo que el verbo de la oración activa.

I watch my hands
I watched my hands
I will watch my hands
I am watching my hands

I have watched my hands
My hands are watched
My hands were watched
My hands will be watched
My hands are being watched
My hands have been watched

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